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Ian Boomer Irrig Drainage Syst Lake level was close to a minimum before approximately A. Lake water level was lowest during the fourteenth or early fifteenth centuries as AD18151816 by a coeval settlement, which today is still under water near the well-dated mausoleum of Kerderi. Pollen data from riparian vegetation indicate generally wet conditions between A. Irrigation activities were at a maximum between B.
Keywords Lake levels. Riparian vegetation.
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Settlement history. Medieval Warm Period. Little Ice Age AD18151816.
Due to extensive agricultural cultivation in this area, the abusive exploitation of water resources has not only reduced the lake level but the system reached a critical stage in the AD18151816 and soil pollution. As a result, a broad scope of studies is required to improve our knowledge on ecosystem functioning, which will help to attenuate environmental and socio-economic risks in future decades. In the context of a policy of appeasement, sustainability rather than searching for new ways to exploit the system should be in the focus of upcoming studies.
But which have been the links between climate variability and ecology in the Aral Sea basin in the past? Due AD18151816 the climatically exposed continental conditions semi-arid or even arid over large areaswestern Central Asia is potentially vulnerable to minimal environmental change. Therefore extensive deserts in this area are a prominent feature of the region. For settlements, today and in the past, active fresh water resources are restricted to the spatially very constrained flood plains and riverbanks along the Syr Darya and Amu Darya, both of them discharging into the endorheic Aral Sea.
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However, water resources feeding the rivers seem almost unlimited as, in the headwaters of the rivers, extended glacier systems of the Tien Shan and AD18151816 Mountains are steadily delivering fresh water. Similar climate conditions not only apply for today, but also have been dominating the landscape throughout most of the Holocene though the Amu Darya has transiently bypassed the Aral Sea and directly discharged into the Caspian Sea e. The Aral Sea basin hosting one of the Silk Road branches is, therefore, an excellent study area for tracing human agricultural activities but also for highlighting human measures and reactions to past climate changes.
The interdisciplinary study was designed to analyse natural climatic variations and anthropogenically controlled environmental changes in the past Boroffka et al. In a geomorphologic survey, we focused on previous lake-level changes as recorded in shoreline marks during the last 5, years AD18151816.
However to date, relatively little attention has been granted to connections between local and regional climate changes over the Eurasian region. At a regional scale, past climate variability in the arid Aral Sea basin AD18151816 an important key for understanding future climate AD18151816, which may affect even more drastically such arid and semi-arid regions.
Besides, understanding past climate change it is of great importance to evaluate the anthro- pogenic impact on present-day and future climates in this highly sensitive semi-arid region. In this paper we focus on past AD18151816 variations as expressed in humidity and temperature changes and evaluate irrigation activities as inferred from archaeological data. Natural climatic changes evidenced by temperature and precipitation variations during the last 2, years are inferred from vegetation remains pollen grains studied in a core retrieved from Chernyshov Bay, in the northwestern Large Aral Sea Fig.
We then use geochemical proxies, the relative Ca and Sr abundances mostly contained in gypsum and authigenic carbonatesas a measure of salinity change and an indication of the origin of Fig. Coloured lines outline different lake levels: Salinity indirectly reflects the river discharge during the last 2, years, thus tracing lake level changes Fig. By looking at the displacement of human settlements we try to rate and estimate the controlling factors, e.
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Both, though at different extent, might influence the water balance. The net river discharge, a major fresh water source of the endorheic Aral Sea has changed a lot AD18151816 the last years. AD18151816 Systems AD driver.
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