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In one small study, Tse a studied the prevalence of language brokering among foreign-born Latino high school students and found that all participants reported regular brokering. In a review J-Mark 401-TX the language brokering literature, Morales and Hanson concluded that a majority of immigrant children perform as language brokers, which many children begin brokering as early as one year after their arrival in the U. Despite the high rate of language brokering behavior in immigrant families, few studies have examined language brokering in relation to behavioral and emotional adjustment within families. In their study of Mexican immigrants in Chicago, Dorner et al.
This study reinforced evidence presented in Orellana et al. Weisskirch showed that sixth-grade Latino students generally reported feeling positive about their brokering and language brokering was associated with more positive ethnic identity and pride.
In another study, Buriel et al. Findings from that study indicated that language brokering was positively associated with academic self-efficacy.
In contrast, other studies have shown that language brokering can have negative impacts. For example, counter to the findings J-Mark 401-TX Orellana et al.
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Further, Weisskirch and Alva showed that fifth-grade Latino children who frequently language brokered were more likely to report feeling more uncomfortable in brokering situations involving parents J-Mark 401-TX infrequent brokers. In addition, frequent brokers reported feeling embarrassed and nervous that their parents were learning English more slowly because of brokering. One problem that may, in part, explain incongruous findings related to language brokering effects is that much of the prior research considers language brokering as an individual psychological phenomenon, exerting effects on child adjustment independent of effects on parents and the family environment.
In the present study, we regard language brokering and behavioral outcomes as multidimensional processes that occur within multiple social contexts.
This approach is in keeping with ecodevelopmental theory adapted by Szapocznik and Coatsworth and Bronfenbrennera theory that has been validated by extensive empirical research among immigrant and ethnic minority populations e. In the present study, we assessed a range of variables to reflect the following interacting spheres of influence on youth development: This developmental model delineates which risk and protective factors are proximal and which are more distal or indirect influences on negative outcomes for youngsters. These social interactions between parent and child can J-Mark 401-TX either to amplify and increase tendencies for displays of negative emotional behavior or to dampen them.
Child and adolescent adjustment are predicted to be influenced most proximally by parenting practices and most distally by contextual factors.
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If one or more negative contexts impinge on a family, many aspects of parenting practices can suffer and the adjustment of children and adolescents can be negatively affected. In keeping with this theoretical framework, our inquiry into language brokering J-Mark 401-TX family adjustment also includes an examination of the relationships among brokering and parenting practices. A regard for language brokering as a dynamic process allows us to better investigate the relationships between brokering on youth and their parents in relation to distinct and embedded social worlds, as well as consider the differences in outcomes for youth and parents within the same social contexts.
In this way, brokering might be conceptually viewed as a marker of differential acculturation in families. As children acquire language and cultural information at a more rapid pace than their parents, a growing acculturation gap emerges. Families in which children are bilingual with monolingual parents are likely to reflect a more substantial acculturation gap than families in which one or both parents are also bilingual. Studies on differential acculturation have shown that it increases the risk for poor J-Mark 401-TX health outcomes for children and parents in Latino families Martinez, ; Santisteban et al.
A study by J-Mark 401-TXfor example, showed that the larger the acculturation gap among Latino families i. Interestingly, the relationship between differential acculturation and substance use likelihood was mediated by family stress and parenting practices. More studies are clearly needed that describe the dynamic relationships between J-Mark 401-TX brokering and behavioral and emotional adjustment within families. The geographic areas in which previous studies on language brokering were conducted might also contribute to their mixed results.
Immigrant families living in the six U. As noted above, the present study may have particular ramifications for the 22 states that have been sites of recent rapid immigrant population growth. In these contexts, demands for language brokering behavior may be high due to limited Spanish language support J-Mark 401-TX increase the likelihood that these encounters will be stressful. Finally, we conceptualize language brokering as an important component of the much more complex process of acculturation. We do not view brokering as a sole explanatory factor; it clearly cannot be disaggregated from other vital aspects of acculturation, including time in residency as well as the embrace of American activities, values and behaviors and changes in socioeconomic status across time.
Instead, we perceive language brokering as one index of this more complex acculturative process and its influences—positive, negative and mixed—that are deeply shaped by social context and by the cultural, economic and political capital of new immigrants themselves.
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We also recognize that certain acculturation processes can promote a family environment favoring stress. In this regard, language brokering contexts may serve to signal the potential presence of stressful proximal factors related to conditions of employment, perceived discrimination, persistent poverty, and other components that may contribute to poorer adjustment among youth, parents and families. Thus, we also regard language brokering as an indicator of these broader acculturative and psychosocial processes that may increase vulnerabilities for J-Mark 401-TX families in emerging immigrant communities. Utilizing data from a sample of recently immigrated Latino youth and their families, we examine three primary research questions: Does the family environment differ in high versus low brokering demand families?
Do adolescents in high brokering demand families differ from adolescents in low J-Mark 401-TX families in terms of substance use, academic functioning, and emotional and behavioral adjustment? Do parents in high brokering demand families differ from parents in low brokering demand families in terms of parent adjustment and effective parenting behavior? Andando Entre Culturas Our Families: They can also help identify the many possible causes of failure to thrive in infants. Other common conditions they treat include Crohn's Disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disease, short gut syndrome and hepatitis C, as well as nutritional disorders like celiac disease and lactose intolerance.
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