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Discussions Temporal behavior Let us discuss the evolution of the plasma parameters in the positive column and in the near-electrode sheath.

AOpen 1945-GV USB The experimental data indicates that the discharge was not continuous during the active stage. In order to analyze the nature of the discharge interruptions, it is important to discuss plasma decay rates.

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Photographing of the discharge demonstrates an almost instantaneous termination of the cathode sheath when the discharge driving voltage crosses zero compare images T1 and T2 in Fig. The discharge lasts until the discharge driving voltage changes sign again and the process is repeated. When the amplitude of AOpen 1945-GV USB oscillations decreases below V starting at the 6th half-cycle in Fig. The positive column also experiences significant decay during the discharge interruptions as one can see from the AOpen 1945-GV USB measurements of the interelectrode plasma electron density shown in Fig.

This remaining plasma causes a glow in the gap shown in photographs in Fig. It is interesting to note that, in contrast with plasma electron density, the conductivity of the plasma channel does not reduce significantly during the discharge interruptions see Fig.

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This is related to the simultaneous decrease of electron collisional frequency around AOpen 1945-GV USB Utot when the electric field in the column is crossing the zero see Fig. The discharge is governed by an instant value of the applied AC voltage and the amount of plasma remaining after the last breakdown event.


Positive column and near-cathode sheath Let us now discuss some parameters of the cathode sheath determined in this work. As shown in Fig. These current densities are close to previously measured normal current densities in glow discharges, indicating that nearly normal cathode layer is established Figure 9: Current AOpen 1945-GV USB at cathode and in positive column. This is caused by the fact that for the first oscillation the entire gap has to breakdown, while on the following half-waves, a well-conducting plasma channel remains after the discharge is interrupted see conductivity waveform in Fig. Visual observations indicate that attachment of the discharge channel to the living tissue sample may differ from the quasi-steady, diffusive attachment observed at the surgical probe. Instead, the attachment of the plasma column to the tissue was non-steady, accompanied with random motion over the tissue while the plasma column at the point of contact with the tissue was contracted.

It should be noted that the scenario of the non-steady contracted attachment can be mimicked with the replica at low ESU powers and flow rates.

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Visual observations of the attachment to the replica electrode indicate that a decrease of power and flow rate causes sporadic transitions from quasi-steady, diffusive to non-steady, contracted attachment. This transition is captured in Fig. Figure Discharge voltage and current waveforms indicating sporadic transition between modes with steady and non-steady attachment to the cathode on the positive half-wave ESU power - 20 W, Ar flow rate - 2. Typically, plasmas at such conditions are nearly thermal and therefore, gas temperatures of about several thousand K might be expected in electrosurgical plasmas Note, since measured plasma electron density is relatively high, other diagnostic techniques such as Stark broadening and Thomson scattering can be potentially utilized for testing of such plasmas.

Let us now discuss how utilization of the inorganic replica instead of the living tissue affects the discharge. Experiments indicate that discharge attachment was different in these cases, namely non-steady attachment to the living tissue versus quasi-steady attachment to the replica. This can be explained by the fact that application of the ESU to the living tissue causes instant localized burning of the tissue which leads to a change in its local physical AOpen 1945-GV USB electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity etc.

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In other words, the tissue can be considered as an electrode with constantly fluctuating properties. Since tissue burning causes carbonization, it may be hypothesized that averaged over time, the surface layer of the living tissue in contact with the plasma would exhibit properties similar to the electrode made of carbon. AOpen 1945-GV USB


Also, since the effect of the cathode material on the discharge characteristics such as cathode fall, breakdown voltage, plasma properties in the positive column etc. Similarity of the discharge current and voltage measured with the inorganic replica and with the living tissue also supports this conclusion. The plasma electron density was measured in the range of AOpen 1945-GV USB.

The discharge can be classified as a glow discharge of the alternating current with contracted positive column. The discharge ignites every half-wave of the driving voltage when voltage increases above the breakdown threshold and is interrupted at the end of each half-wave when the voltage approaches zero. Methods Electron density measurements A methodology for electron density measurement by means of microwave scattering on elongated atmospheric pressure plasma channels will be developed. It should be noted that this consideration differs from that conducted by Shneider in Ref.

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