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In general, however, the dominant tendency is a decreased firing frequency in most recorded elements and thus, reduced global network activity Figure 2B. Next, we proceeded to characterize network interactions by means AOpen 2681-GL LAN cross-correlation analysis among respiratory elements Figure 3. Cross-correlograms obtained from pairwise analysis between elements in a given slice exhibit a wide variety of shapes Figure 3Aright: In general, the larger the correlation values above this threshold, the stronger we considered the strength of the functional connections between the elements recorded by the electrodes of the MEA to be Figure 3A. Correlation linkage matrices reveal that the strength of the interactions among respiratory elements is quite diverse Figure 3A.

Moreover, such interactions among respiratory elements change during the reconfiguration of the respiratory network in hypoxia Figure 3.

While the correlation value of some links increased during hypoxia, in most links it decreased Figures 3B,Csuggesting that the strength of network interaction is AOpen 2681-GL LAN Figures 3C4A. Figure 4B illustrates the configuration of the respiratory network both in normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

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Elements are denoted by circles and functional links by lines; the larger the circle, the more connections it has. Thicker lines mean more correlated firing between the elements involved. In summary, the respiratory circuit exhibits a significant decrease in overall activity AOpen 2681-GL LAN a significant parallel decrease in the strength of functional connectivity, but neither the number of active neurons nor the number of functional connections changed significantly Figure 4B.


Intraburst firing frequency exhibited a median of 2. Isocitrate increases functional interactions among respiratory elements and increases correlated firing in hypoxia. B Pseudocolored correlation matrices between all pairs of recording elements AOpen 2681-GL LAN a representative slice control and in the same slice in the presence of isocitrate and further application of hypoxia. Color scale indicates the extent of correlation.

Note more correlated element pairs after isocitrate and during hypoxia in the continuous presence of isocitrate. C Differences in correlation values AOpen 2681-GL LAN all recording element pairs were assessed by subtracting correlation values during hypoxia from those with isocitrate. Note that for a few pairs of respiratory elements, the correlation decreased bluewhile it increased for most pairs hot colors.

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D The plots show changes in correlation of all paired comparisons between elements: Note that most element pairs increase correlated firing when isocitrate is present in hypoxic conditions. Correlation matrices show that isocitrate increases the strength of most of the functional links among respiratory elements Figures 5B—D. Figure 6B illustrates the change in respiratory network configuration in the presence of isocitrate, showing that isocitrate increases not only the activity of AOpen 2681-GL LAN respiratory elements Figure 5A but also the strength of the functional links in the circuit in normoxic conditions. To answer this, we then subjected the isocitrate-treated tissue to hypoxic conditions Figures 56. It was seen that during hypoxia firing significantly decreased, returning to control levels Figure 5A.

Intraburst frequency was reduced to a median of 2.

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In spite of the reduction in firing frequency in hypoxia, isocitrate increased the strength of functional links in AOpen 2681-GL LAN conditions Figures 5B—D6A. Although recorded elements of the respiratory network show a decreased firing rate in hypoxic conditions in the presence of isocitrate Figure 5Athe strength of the functional links of the circuit is increased as compared with normoxic conditions in the presence of isocitrate Figure 6B. Note that this is contrary AOpen 2681-GL LAN what happens in slices in the absence of isocitrate Figure 4B.

Isocitrate reconfigures the respiratory network by changing firing frequency of respiratory elements and connectivity strength between them. Histogram of the number of links in the respiratory network, indicating that the functional connectivity between elements did not change AOpen 2681-GL LAN in the presence of isocitrate and further application of hypoxia. B Graphic representation of respiratory network configurations in normoxia before and after isocitrate application and in hypoxic conditions in the presence of isocitrate. The width of the lines is proportional to the correlation value of any given link. Note that isocitrate increases the strength of the functional links but does not significantly change their number.

When hypoxia is applied in the presence of isocitrate, the strength of the functional links increases even further, but again, their number remains constant. Here, we studied this reconfiguration by MEA recordings and analyzed three possible contributions to such a change: Which was released tool will correct AOpen GL versions automatically. Lenovo How Do updates? Mj Note method may not work some non-Intel chipset systems. Generated EST. File Version 8. Wide variety. GL. BIOS, RA0R, 9/22/, KB. Add to support Athlon and Sempron mobile revision E.

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